top of page

What are the Symptoms of Vitamin B12 Deficiency? | Balance

Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in various bodily processes, including DNA synthesis, energy production, and central nervous system function. However, despite its importance, B12 insufficiency and deficiency are relatively common. In fact, studies suggest that up to 20% of people over the age of 60 in the United States and the United Kingdom are deficient in this vital vitamin.

In this article, we will explore the signs and symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, its causes, and the importance of early detection and treatment.

B12 supplement

The Importance of Vitamin B12

Before delving into the symptoms of B12 deficiency, let's first understand why this vitamin is crucial for our overall health.

Vitamin B12 is necessary for the production of red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body. It also plays a vital role in maintaining the health of our nerves and DNA synthesis.

Without adequate B12 levels, the body's cells cannot function optimally, leading to various health issues.

Common Symptoms of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency can manifest in a wide range of symptoms, both physical and psychological. It is important to note that these symptoms can vary from person to person, and the severity can differ as well. Here are some of the most commonly reported symptoms of B12 deficiency:


One of the hallmark symptoms of B12 deficiency is fatigue. When your body lacks sufficient B12, it can impact the production of red blood cells, leading to decreased oxygen delivery to the cells. This can result in feelings of tiredness and low energy levels.

Pale or Yellow Skin

B12 deficiency can cause changes in the appearance of your skin. Some individuals may develop pale skin due to a lack of healthy red blood cells, while others may experience jaundice, which is characterized by yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes.

Neurological Symptoms

B12 is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Therefore, a deficiency in this vitamin can lead to various neurological symptoms, including:

  • Numbness or tingling sensations in the hands, legs, or feet.

  • Difficulty walking, balance problems, and staggering.

  • Cognitive difficulties, such as difficulty thinking and reasoning, memory loss, and trouble concentrating.

A woman experiencing a headache

Mood Changes and Depression

Studies have shown a link between B12 deficiency and an increased risk of developing depression and other mood disorders. Low levels of B12 can lead to elevated levels of homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid that can contribute to the development of depression.

Gastrointestinal Issues

B12 deficiency can affect the gastrointestinal system, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, constipation, bloating, and gas. These issues can occur in both adults and children.

Mouth and Tongue Problems

Some individuals with B12 deficiency may experience pain, inflammation, and sores in the mouth. Additionally, a condition called glossitis, characterized by an inflamed, red, and painful tongue, can also be a sign of B12 deficiency.


Headaches are commonly reported symptoms of B12 deficiency in both adults and children. Research has shown that individuals with low B12 levels are more likely to experience migraines and that B12 treatment may help alleviate migraine symptoms in some people.

Muscle Weakness and Cramps

B12 deficiency can negatively impact motor and sensory nerve function, leading to muscle weakness, cramps, and impaired coordination. These symptoms can affect daily activities and quality of life.

Vision Disturbances

In some cases, B12 deficiency may cause vision disturbances, possibly due to damage to the optic nerve. It is essential to address this symptom promptly to prevent further complications.

These are just a few of the many possible symptoms of B12 deficiency. It is important to note that these symptoms can vary from person to person, and individuals may experience a combination of different symptoms.

Causes of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Now that we understand the symptoms, let's explore the various causes of vitamin B12 deficiency. Some of the common factors that can contribute to B12 deficiency include:

Inadequate Dietary Intake

A significant cause of B12 deficiency is a lack of sufficient dietary intake. Vitamin B12 is primarily found in animal-based foods such as meat, eggs, poultry, and dairy products.

Therefore, individuals following a strict vegetarian or vegan diet may be at a higher risk of deficiency if they do not consume fortified grains or take B12 supplements.

A woman experiencing stomach pain

Malabsorption Issues

Even if you consume an adequate amount of B12, certain conditions can interfere with your body's ability to absorb and utilize the vitamin.

Conditions such as celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and surgical procedures like weight-loss surgery can affect B12 absorption.


Certain medications can interfere with B12 absorption or increase B12 excretion, leading to deficiency. Examples include metformin, commonly prescribed for diabetes, and proton pump inhibitors used to treat heartburn. If you are taking any of these medications, it is essential to discuss potential B12 deficiency with your healthcare provider.

Age-related Decline in Absorption

As we age, our ability to absorb nutrients, including B12, may decline. This can make older adults more susceptible to B12 deficiency. Regular monitoring of B12 levels and supplementation may be necessary for older individuals.

Medical Conditions

Certain medical conditions, such as pernicious anemia, can interfere with the body's ability to absorb B12. Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune condition that affects the stomach's ability to produce intrinsic factor, a protein necessary for B12 absorption.

Detecting and Treating B12 Deficiency

Early detection and treatment of B12 deficiency are crucial to prevent further complications. If you experience any of the symptoms listed above or fall into any of the high-risk categories, it is important to consult a healthcare professional. They can perform a thorough evaluation and order blood tests to determine your B12 levels.

If diagnosed with B12 deficiency, your healthcare professional will recommend the most appropriate treatment based on the severity of your deficiency. Treatment options may include:

  • B12 supplements: Depending on the severity of the deficiency, you may be prescribed oral B12 supplements or receive regular B12 injections.

  • Dietary changes: In cases where dietary intake is the primary cause of deficiency, incorporating B12-rich foods into your diet, or consuming fortified foods and beverages may be recommended.

  • Lifestyle modifications: Addressing underlying conditions, such as celiac disease or Crohn's disease, can improve B12 absorption and prevent further deficiency.

Regular monitoring of B12 levels is important to ensure that deficiency is effectively managed and that supplementation or other interventions are adjusted as necessary.

The Importance of Prevention

Prevention is always better than cure, and this holds true for vitamin B12 deficiency as well. Here are some strategies to prevent B12 deficiency:

  • Maintain a balanced diet: Include B12-rich foods in your diet, such as meat, eggs, poultry, dairy products, and fortified grains.

  • Consider supplementation: If you follow a strict vegetarian or vegan diet, or if you have difficulty meeting your B12 requirements through diet alone, consider taking B12 supplements.

  • Discuss medications with your healthcare provider: If you are taking medications that may interfere with B12 absorption, talk to your healthcare provider about potential supplementation or alternative options.

  • Regular check-ups: Stay proactive about your health and have regular check-ups to monitor your B12 levels, especially if you fall into any high-risk categories.

Debunking Vitamin B12 Myths

The internet is filled with various claims about the benefits of vitamin B12, ranging from preventing chronic diseases to treating infertility and fatigue. However, it is important to separate fact from fiction.

While vitamin B12 is essential for overall health, it is not a magic cure-all. Here are a few common myths about B12:

Myth 1: B12 prevents Alzheimer's disease and heart disease

While low B12 levels have been linked to cognitive decline, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of B12 as a preventive measure or treatment for Alzheimer's disease.

Similarly, although B12 plays a role in heart health, there is no concrete evidence to suggest that B12 supplementation alone can prevent heart disease.

Myth 2: B12 cures infertility and fatigue

While B12 deficiency can contribute to fatigue and other symptoms, it is not a guaranteed cure for all cases of fatigue or infertility. It is crucial to address the underlying causes of these conditions and work with healthcare professionals for appropriate management.

In Conclusion

Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition that can have significant implications for our overall health and well-being. Recognizing the signs and symptoms of B12 deficiency is essential for early detection and prompt treatment.

If you experience any of the symptoms mentioned in this article or fall into any high-risk categories, consult with a healthcare professional to determine your B12 status and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Remember, prevention is key, so maintain a balanced diet, consider supplementation if needed, and stay proactive about your health. By taking these steps, you can ensure that your body has the necessary B12 levels to support optimal health and vitality.

8 views0 comments


bottom of page