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Do you gain weight on your period? | Balance

If you are a woman who experiences menstruation you may have experienced the frustrating feeling of bloating or even the perception of weight gain during your period. The truth is, many individuals go through similar experiences, and it's essential to understand the physiological reasons behind these period-related changes in weight. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the topic of weight gain during menstruation, exploring the causes, effects, and strategies to manage it effectively.

Understanding the Menstrual Cycle and Hormonal Fluctuations

Before we dive into the specifics, it's crucial to have a basic understanding of the menstrual cycle and how it relates to weight fluctuations. The menstrual cycle typically lasts between 25 to 31 days, with two main phases: the follicular phase and the luteal phase. Each phase brings about changes in hormone levels, which can significantly impact your body and potentially lead to temporary weight gain.

The Follicular Phase

The menstrual cycle begins with the follicular phase, which starts when you begin menstruating and lasts for approximately two weeks until ovulation occurs. During this phase, your body prepares to release an egg for potential fertilization. One key hormone involved in this phase is estrogen, which rises and falls in a cyclic pattern throughout the menstrual cycle.

The Luteal Phase

Following ovulation, the luteal phase commences and lasts until your period begins. In this phase, progesterone levels rise, working in conjunction with estrogen to prepare the uterus for a potential pregnancy. These hormonal changes during the luteal phase can contribute to various symptoms, including bloating and water retention, which may lead to the perception of weight gain.

The menstrual cycle graphic

Exploring the Causes of Period-Related Weight Gain

Weight gain before and during your period, often referred to as premenstrual syndrome (PMS) weight gain, can be attributed to several factors. While researchers have yet to pinpoint the exact cause of PMS symptoms, there are several theories as to why weight gain may occur during this time.

Hormonal Factors

Cyclic changes in sex hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, play a significant role in the development of PMS symptoms. These hormonal fluctuations can impact various bodily processes, including fluid regulation and metabolism, potentially leading to water retention and temporary weight gain.

Prostaglandin Level Changes

Prostaglandins, hormone-like substances produced in the body, play a role in promoting uterine contractions during menstruation. Fluctuations in prostaglandin levels can cause discomfort and abdominal bloating, contributing to the perception of weight gain during the menstrual cycle.

Cyclic Changes in Brain Chemicals

Certain brain chemicals, including neurotransmitters like serotonin, undergo cyclic changes during the menstrual cycle. Serotonin, known for its mood-regulating properties, can also impact appetite and food cravings. As serotonin levels fluctuate, the desire for high-calorie and carbohydrate-rich foods may increase, potentially leading to higher calorie intake and weight gain.

Woman checking her weight

Impact on Eating Patterns

During the premenstrual phase, some individuals may experience changes in eating patterns.

Cravings for sweet, salty, or high-fat foods are common, and indulging in these cravings can exacerbate PMS symptoms and contribute to weight gain.

It's important to be mindful of your dietary choices during this time and opt for balanced, nutrient-rich meals instead.

Fluid Retention and Bloating

Water retention and bloating are hallmark symptoms of PMS. Hormonal fluctuations, particularly changes in estrogen and progesterone levels, can disrupt fluid regulation in the body, leading to increased water retention and a feeling of bloating. While this bloating may contribute to temporary weight gain, it is important to remember that it is primarily due to water retention rather than actual fat accumulation.

Managing Weight Gain Before and During Your Period

While weight gain before and during your period is a common occurrence, there are various strategies you can implement to manage these symptoms effectively. By adopting healthy lifestyle habits and making mindful choices, you can alleviate discomfort and minimize the impact on your overall well-being.

Balanced Nutrition

During the days leading up to your period, it's essential to prioritize balanced nutrition. Opt for whole foods such as fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains. These nutrient-dense choices provide essential vitamins and minerals while minimizing the consumption of empty calories that may exacerbate PMS symptoms.


Staying hydrated is crucial for overall health and can help alleviate bloating and fluid retention. Aim to drink an adequate amount of water throughout the day, as increased water intake can actually reduce water retention and promote a sense of balance in your body.

Regular Exercise

Engaging in regular physical activity has numerous benefits during your menstrual cycle, including reducing bloating and improving mood. Moderate-intensity exercises such as walking, swimming, or cycling can help alleviate PMS symptoms and promote overall well-being.

Mindful Eating

During your period, it's common to experience cravings for certain types of food. While it's okay to indulge occasionally, aim for moderation and make mindful choices. Opt for healthier alternatives to satisfy your cravings, such as dark chocolate instead of highly processed sweets or air-popped popcorn instead of salty snacks.

Stress Management

Stress can exacerbate PMS symptoms and impact your overall well-being. Incorporate stress management techniques into your daily routine, such as meditation, deep breathing exercises, or engaging in activities that bring you joy and relaxation. Prioritizing self-care can have a positive impact on your menstrual cycle and overall health.



Certain supplements may help alleviate PMS symptoms and manage weight gain during your period. In our practice we typically recommend magnesium, zinc and omega 3 fatty acids.

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a role in over 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It has been found to help reduce muscle cramps, headaches, and mood swings in women with PMS. Magnesium also helps regulate serotonin levels in the brain, which can improve mood and reduce anxiety.

Zinc is a mineral that is essential for immune system function and wound healing. It has also been found to help reduce the severity of PMS symptoms. Zinc is important for the production of progesterone, a hormone that helps regulate the menstrual cycle. Women with PMS may have lower levels of zinc, and supplementing with zinc may help improve symptoms such as bloating, cramps, and irritability.

Omega-3s are a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish, nuts, and seeds. They are known to have anti-inflammatory effects in the body, which can help reduce the pain and discomfort associated with PMS. Some studies have found that omega-3s can also help improve mood, reduce bloating, and decrease breast tenderness in women with PMS.

While these may be supplements that we typically recommend it's always important to consult with your healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen to ensure it's safety for your specific health care.

When to Seek Medical Advice

While weight gain and other PMS symptoms are common, it is essential to monitor your symptoms and seek medical advice if they significantly impact your daily life or if you have concerns about your overall health. Your healthcare provider can provide personalized guidance and recommend appropriate interventions based on your specific needs.

In Conclusion

In conclusion, weight gain before and during your period is a temporary and common occurrence for many women. Understanding the hormonal changes and implementing healthy lifestyle habits can help manage and alleviate these symptoms effectively. By prioritizing balanced nutrition, hydration, regular exercise, stress management, and mindful eating, you can navigate your menstrual cycle with greater ease and promote overall well-being. Remember to listen to your body, seek support when needed, and embrace self-care as an integral part of your menstrual health journey.

Additional Information: It's important to note that weight fluctuations during your menstrual cycle are generally temporary and should not be a cause for significant concern. However, if you experience severe or persistent symptoms, such as excessive weight gain or severe mood changes, it is advisable to consult with a healthcare professional to rule out any underlying conditions or hormonal imbalances.

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