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Creatine Supplementation - everything you'd need to know | Balance

Creatine has become a popular supplement among athletes and fitness enthusiasts, thanks to its ability to enhance strength, improve exercise performance, and support muscle growth.

However, there is still a lot of confusion surrounding this compound. In this comprehensive guide, we'll cover everything you need to know about creatine, including its natural sources, benefits, and proper supplementation.

Creatine powder with a scoop

Is Creatine Natural?

Yes, creatine is a natural compound found in the body, particularly in muscle cells.

It is synthesized from the amino acids glycine and arginine in the liver and kidneys and is also obtained through the consumption of certain foods, such as red meat and seafood.

Creatine plays a vital role in producing energy for high-intensity activities and supporting muscle function.

What is Creatine?

Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that helps supply energy to cells, particularly muscle cells. It is stored in the form of phosphocreatine and is involved in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy currency of the body.

ATP is essential for various cellular processes, including muscle contractions, which makes creatine a crucial component for athletic performance and muscle building.

What exactly does Creatine do?

Creatine has several functions in the body. Some of the most important include:

Muscle Energy Production

Creatine increases the availability of phosphocreatine in the muscles, which helps in the production of ATP. This additional energy allows for improved performance during high-intensity exercises, such as weightlifting and sprinting.

Muscle Growth and Recovery

By providing additional energy to the muscles, creatine enables you to perform more work during training sessions. This increased workload leads to greater muscle growth and faster recovery times.

Brain Health

Apart from its effects on muscles, creatine also plays a role in maintaining brain health. It has been shown to improve cognitive function, reduce mental fatigue, and even protect against neurodegenerative diseases.

How Creatine Helps with Muscle Building

Creatine supplementation has been proven to be effective in promoting muscle growth in both short and long-term scenarios. It works through several mechanisms:

  • Increased workload: Creatine allows you to perform more work during training sessions, which is a key factor in long-term muscle growth.

  • Improved cell signaling: Creatine can enhance satellite cell signaling, which helps in muscle repair and new muscle growth.

  • Elevated anabolic hormones: Supplementing with creatine has been shown to increase levels of growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which promote muscle growth.

  • Increased cell hydration: Creatine increases water content within muscle cells, leading to a cell volumization effect that may play a role in muscle growth.

  • Reduced protein breakdown: Creatine supplementation can help reduce muscle protein breakdown, leading to increased overall muscle mass.

A woman performing deadlifts in a commercial gym

How Creatine Helps with Sports Performance

Creatine is not only beneficial for muscle building but also for improving athletic performance.

Its ability to increase ATP production translates to enhanced strength, power, and endurance during high-intensity exercises. Some of the notable effects include:

  • Increased strength: Creatine supplementation has been shown to improve both upper and lower body strength in various age groups, from sedentary individuals to elite athletes.

  • Improved power and endurance: Athletes in sports that require short bursts of intense activity, such as sprinting, weightlifting, and high-intensity interval training (HIIT), can benefit from creatine supplementation, as it helps maintain optimal performance levels for longer periods.

How Creatine Can Help with Weight Management

While creatine is primarily known for its effects on muscle growth and performance, it can also play a role in weight management. It can help in the following ways:

  • Increased lean body mass: Creatine supplementation leads to increased muscle mass, which can contribute to a higher metabolic rate. A higher metabolic rate means that your body burns more calories at rest, making it easier to maintain or lose weight.

  • Enhanced exercise performance: The improved performance and endurance during high-intensity exercises, brought on by creatine supplementation, can lead to increased calorie expenditure and better weight management.

Other Benefits of Creatine Supplementation

Besides its well-known effects on muscle building and sports performance, creatine supplementation offers several other health benefits:

  • Brain health: Creatine can improve cognitive function, reduce mental fatigue, and protect against neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.

  • Bone health: Creatine can help slow down age-related bone loss and reduce the risk of osteoporosis. It may also help alleviate the symptoms of osteoarthritis, a common degenerative joint condition.

  • Heart health: Some studies suggest that creatine supplementation may improve heart function and reduce the risk of heart-related issues.

How to Supplement Creatine

There are various forms of creatine available in the market, but the most researched and effective form is creatine monohydrate. To maximize its benefits, consider the following supplementation guidelines:

Creatine Loading

A creatine loading phase can help rapidly increase muscle stores of creatine. During this phase, take 0.3 grams per kilogram of body weight per day for 5-7 days. For example, a person weighing 82 kg (180 lbs) would take 25 grams per day, split into four 5-gram servings throughout the day.

Maintenance Phase

After the loading phase, reduce the intake to 3-5 grams per day to maintain high creatine levels in the muscles. This maintenance phase can be continued indefinitely without the need for additional loading phases.

However, if you prefer not to do a loading phase, you can simply consume 3-5 grams per day from the start. It may take 3-4 weeks to maximize creatine stores in your muscles with this approach.

How Much Creatine to Take

The optimal creatine dosage depends on factors such as body weight, muscle mass, and activity levels.

As a general recommendation, 3-5 grams per day is sufficient for most individuals.

However, those with a high amount of muscle mass or high activity levels may benefit from doses up to 10 grams per day.

How Often Should you Take Creatine

Creatine can be taken daily, with or without an initial loading phase. The maintenance dose of 3-5 grams per day can be continued indefinitely, as there is no evidence to suggest that cycling creatine is beneficial.

When is the Best Time to Take Creatine

The ideal time to take creatine varies depending on individual preferences and workout routines.

Some people prefer taking it before a workout to maximize energy levels, while others take it after a workout to support muscle recovery.

Ultimately, the most important factor is consistency in supplementation to maintain optimal creatine levels in the muscles.


Creatine is a natural and effective supplement that can support muscle growth, enhance athletic performance, and offer various health benefits.

By understanding how creatine works and following proper supplementation guidelines, you can maximize its potential to help you reach your fitness and health goals.

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